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瑜伽经
点击次数:1060次    发布时间:2017-3-12

  瑜伽经是印度大圣哲帕坦伽利(patanjali)创作了《瑜伽经》,印度瑜伽在其基础上才真正成形,瑜伽行法正式订为八支体系。帕坦伽利是一个对瑜伽有巨大意义的圣人。他撰写了《瑜伽经》,赋予了瑜伽所有理论和知识,形成完整的理论体系和实践系统。在这部著作里,他阐述了瑜伽的定义、瑜伽的内容、瑜伽给身体内部带来的变化等等。

  1.1 Now the discipline of yoga.

  现在 我们开始讲解瑜伽。

  1.2 Yoga is the cessation of mind.

  瑜伽是停止思维,达到心灵的平静,活在当下 不再想过去也不在计划将来。

  1.3 Then the witness is established in itself.

  然后内在建立起静观的境界

  1.4 In the other states there is identification with the modifications of the mind.

  在其他状态(非静观)状态下,是思维与思维的纠结。

  1.5 The modifications of the mind are five. They can be either a source of anguish or of non-anguish.

  思维五种状态下变动,它们可以是痛苦烦闷的根源,也可以是快乐和兴奋的根源。

  1.6 They are right knowledge, wrong knowledge, imagination, sleep and memory.

  思维是根据:正确的知识、错误的知识、想象、睡眠和记忆 五种状态下不停变动。

  1.7 Right knowledge has three sources: direct cognition, inference and the words of the awakened ones.

  正确的知识有三个来源:直接的认知、推论和开悟者的话。

  1.8 Wrong knowledge is a false conception not corresponding to the thing as it is.

  错误的知识是一个虚假的观念,它不等于事实本然的样子。

  1.9 An image conjured up by words without any substance behind it is vikalpa –imagination.

  一个被文字所唤起,而在它背后没有任何实质的意象就是想象。

  1.10 The modification of the mind which is based on the absence of any content in it is sleep.

  没有任何内容物的头脑形式就是睡眠。

  注:日常生活中头脑总会聚焦于一些对象,而深睡眠中头脑不聚焦于任何东西。

  1.11 Memory is the calling up of past experiences.

  记忆就是过去经验的唤起。

  1.12 Their cessation is brought about by persistent inner effort and nonattachment.

  它们的静止是藉着持续的内在努力(abhyasa)和不执着而发生的。

  1.13 Of these two, abhyasa the inner practice is the effort for being firmly established in oneself.

  在这两者里面,阿伯亚沙——内在的修行,就是牢固地定于本身的努力。

  注:abhyasa,有选择的行动,以期在任何情况下能保持头脑的平息。

  1.14 It becomes firmly grounded on being continued for a long time, without interruption and with reverent devotion.

  它变成牢固地奠基于自己的本性,持续很长的时间,没有中断,而且带着虔诚的奉献。

  注:虔诚、坚持的练习使这一(停止头脑的)努力牢牢扎根。

  1.15 The first state of vairagya, desirelessness – cessation from self-indulgence in the thirst for sensuous pleasures, with conscious effort.

  拜拉格亚(vairagya)——无欲的第一种状态:用有意识的努力去停止自我放纵在对感官欢乐的渴求。

  1.16 The last state of vairagya, desirelessness – cessation of all desiring by knowing the innermost nature of purusha, the supreme self.

  拜拉格亚——无欲的最终状态:藉着知道“至高无上的自己”(purusha,真我/神我)的最内在本性而停止一切欲求。

  1.17 Samprajnata samadhi is the samadhi that is accompanied by reasoning, reflection, bliss and a sense of pure being.

  Samprajnata三摩地是伴随着推理、反省、喜乐和一种纯粹存在的感觉的三摩地。

  注:Samprajnata samadhi,也有译为有想三摩地(有想三昧)、有缘依三摩地、有知觉神定。是一种仍有对象的专注。

  此三摩地中存在的四者,按逐次精微的顺序排列。四者梵文为:

  vitarka,粗想或理性,专注于物质对象、行为、咒音、(显)意识流等;

  vichara,细想,专注对物质微细(地水火风空)、能量、头脑本身等;

  ananda,更精微,喜乐;

  asmita,自我存在感。

  1.18 In asamprajnata samadhi there is a cessation of all mental activity, and the mind only retains unmanifested impressions.

  Asamprajnata三摩地中,所有的心理活动都停止,头脑只是保留未显现的印象。

  注:Asamprajnata samadhi,也有译为无想三摩地、无想三昧、无缘依三摩地、无知觉神定。是没有对象的专注。

  1.19 Videhas and prakriti-layas attain asamprajnata samadhi because they ceased to identify themselves with their bodies in their previous life. They take rebirth because seeds

  of desire remained.

  维德哈(Videhas)和普拉克里提拉亚(Pakriti-layas)达成Asamprajnata三摩地。因为他们在前世已经停止跟他们的身体认同。他们再度出生,因为仍有欲望的种子。

  注:Vedehas和pakriti-layas是已经了解他不是身体的人。

  1.20 Others who attain asamprajnata samadhi attain through faith, effort, recollection, concentration and discrimination.

  其他达到Asamprajnata三摩地的人是透过信仰、(全然的)努力、回忆、集中精神和明辩(智慧)而达到的。

  注:“信仰”并非盲信(迷信),而是了解的信任。而“回忆”并非对往事的记忆,而是持续地记得、觉知。“集中精神”即专注之冥想。

  1.21 Success is nearest to those whose efforts are intense and sincere.

  成功最接近那些愿望强烈而且很真诚的人。

  1.22 The chances of success vary according to the degree of effort.

  按照努力程度的不同,成功的机会也会有所不同。

  1.23 Success is also attained by those who surrender to god.

  那些臣服于神的人也能够达到成功。

  1.24 God is the supreme ruler. He is an individual unit of divine consciousness. He is untouched by the afflictions of life, action and its result.

  神是至高无上的,他是一个神性意识个别的单位。他不会被生活、行动、以及它的结果所产生出来的痛苦所碰触到。

  1.25 In god the seed is developed to its highest extent.

  在神里面,那个(全知的)种子被发展到它最高的程度。

  1.26 Being beyond the limits of time he is the master of masters.

  超越时间,他是师父中的师父。

  1.27 He is known as aum.

  他以AUM为人所知。

  注:即OM。

  1.28 Repeat and meditate on aum.

  重复颂念和静心冥想AUM。

  1.29 Repeating and meditating on aum brings about the disappearance of all obstacles and an awakening of a new consciousness.

  重复颂念和静心冥想AUM会使所有的障碍都消失。并且有一种新的意识会醒悟过来。

  注:新的意识,即自我认知/觉知。

  1.30 Disease, languor, doubt, carelessness, laziness, sensuality, delusion, impotency and instability are the obstacles that distract the mind.

  疾病、无精打采、怀疑、不关心、懒惰、肉欲、妄想、无能和不稳定等是分心(停止思维)的障碍。

  1.31 Anguish, despair, tremors and irregular breathing are the symptoms of a distracted mind.

  痛苦、失望、颤抖、和不规则的呼吸是分心的特征。

  1.32 To remove these, meditate on one principle.

  要除去这些,必须静心冥想一个法则。

  注:亦有译为“要除去这些干扰,必须练习专注于一点。”具体措施即1.33-1.39中所描述。

  1.33 The mind becomes tranquil by cultivating attitudes of friendliness towards the happy, compassion towards the miserable, joy towards the virtuous and indifference towards the evil.

  借着培养对快乐的人报以友善的态度,对痛苦的人报以慈悲的态度,对美德的人报以喜悦的态度,对罪恶的人报以漠不关心的态度,头脑就会变平静。

  1.34 The mind also becomes tranquil by alternately expelling and retaining the breath.

  呼气和憋气交互进行,头脑也可以变平静。

  1.35 When meditation produces extraordinary sense perceptions, the mind gains Confidence and this helps perseverance.

  当静心产生出特别的感官知觉,头脑会得到自信,这对毅力有帮助。

  1.36 Also, meditate on the inner light which is serene and beyond all sorrow.

  也可静心冥想内在的光,它是安详的。而且超越所有的忧伤。

  1.37 Also meditate on one who has attained desirelessness.

  也可静心冥想一个已经达到无欲的人。

  1.38 Also, meditate on knowledge that comes during sleep.

  也可静心冥想(恳求)获得知识,自然就会得到知识。

  注:观照睡眠

  1.39 Also, meditate on anything that appeals to you.

  也可静心冥想任何想知道(恳求)的事物。

  1.40 Thus, the yogi becomes master of all, from the infinitesimal to the infinite.

  然后,瑜伽练习者便能知道(使头脑专注于)一切,从无限小到无穷大。

  1.41 When the activity of the mind is under control, the mind becomes like pure crystal, reflecting equally, without distortion, the perceiver, the perception and the perceived.

  当活跃的思维得到控制,头脑像纯净的水晶,同等、无扭曲地反映知者、知觉与所知。

  1.42 Savitarka samadhi is the samadhi in which the yogi is still unable to differentiate between the real knowledge, knowledge based on words and knowledge based on reasoning or sense perceptions, which all remain in the mind in a mixed state.

  在Savitarka三摩地中,真知、文字所得、推理或感觉所得的知识混杂在头脑中。

  注:Savitarka,是头脑仍有粗想(vitarka),有分辨(逻辑/理性)、有分别(即二元性)。有寻三昧。

  1.43 Nirvitarka samadhi is attained when the memory is purified, and the mind is able to see the true nature of things without obstruction.

  Nirvitarka三摩地,是记忆(及头脑形式)已净化,然后头脑能无障碍(不带扭曲、转释)地反映事物本身。

  注:Nirvitarka是无粗想、无分辩,但仍有分别(二元性)。无寻三昧。

  1.44 The explanations given for the samadhis of savitarka and nirvitarka, also explain the higher states of samadhi, but in these higher states of savichara and nirvichara

  samadhis, the objects of meditation are more subtle.

  以上对Savitarka和Nirvitarka三摩地的解释,同样说明了更高阶段的三摩地Savichara(Savitarka的高级)和Nirvichara(Nirvitarka的高级),其中,冥想的对象更加精微(细想,vichara)。

  注:1.42和1.43是有粗想和无粗想,而“有细想Savichara”与“无细想Nirvichara”三摩地道理同前。

  Savichara三摩地,亦有译为内省三摩地、有伺三昧。Nirvichara三摩地,有译为无念三摩地、无伺三昧。

  1.45 The province of samadhi that is connected with these finer objects extends up to the formless stage of the subtle energies.

  (这四种)三摩地的(冥想)范围,延伸极精微能量的无形层面。

  1.46 These samadhis that result from meditation on an object are samadhis with seed, and do not give freedom from the cycle of rebirth.

  以上,由专注冥想一个对象所得之三摩地,为有种(子)三摩地,且不能脱离轮回。

  1.47 On attaining the utmost purity of the nirvichara stage of samadhi, there is a dawning of the spiritual light.

  通过到达纯净的Nirvichara三摩地,就有灵性之光的显现。

  1.48 In nirvichara samadhi, the consciousness is filled with truth.

  在此三摩地中,觉知充满真相。

  1.49 In the state of nirvichara samadhi, an object is experienced in its full perspective, because in this state knowledge is gained direct, without the use of the senses.

  在此三摩地中,可直接认知对象,而不经由感觉(和理智)。

  注:所得知识是对象的直接认识,不混杂推理和其它相关概念。

  1.50 The perception gained in nirvichara samadhi transcends all normal perceptions both in extent and intensity

  此三摩地所得之认知,在广度和强度上超越一切普通的认知。

  注:(有种)三摩地中所得新认知(充满真相),会生成新的习惯(印迹),将原有的习气消退。

  1.51 When this controlling of all other controls is transcended, the seedless Samadhi is attained, and with it, freedom from life and death.

  当超越以上对控制的控制,就达到了无种(子)三摩地,脱离生死轮回。

  注:不执著于从有种三摩中所得的新的认知,则这些新的习惯(印迹)也逐渐消退,即达到无种三摩地。

  Part II

  2.1. Kriya-yoga is a practical, preliminary yoga, and it is composed of austerity, self-study and surrender to god.

  Kriya瑜伽是一种实用、初级的瑜伽,它由俭行、了解自己以及臣服于神组成。

  注:Kriya-yoga,有译为行瑜伽、净化术。

  在奥修解释中,Austerity(苦行)的意思并非折磨身体、强制守戒,而是在了解的基础上过一种自然、简朴的生活,以免能量浪费在不必要的欲望当中,故译为“俭行”。Self-study并非自学,而是学

  习、了解自己,也即觉知自己。

  2.2. The practice of kriya-yoga reduces misery, and leads towards samadhi.

  Kriya瑜伽的练习减少烦恼,并通向三摩地。

  注:烦恼,即有色(染色)的念头(见1.5)。

  2.3. Miseries are caused by: lack of awareness, egoism, attractions, repulsions, clinging to life and fear of death.

  悲苦的五个原因:不觉知,自我,迷恋,排斥,执著生命并恐惧死亡。

  注:五烦恼亦有译为无知、我见、贪着、嗔恚、凡俗。

  2.4. Whether they be in the states of dormancy, attenuation, alteration or expansion, it is through lack of awareness that the other causes of misery are able to operate.

  无论它们处于休眠、衰减、转化还是扩张状态,是不觉知使得(五个原因)中的其它几项得以作用。

  2.5. Lack of awareness is taking the transient for the eternal, the impure for the pure, the painful as pleasurable and the non-self for the self.

  不觉知即视短暂为永恒,不纯为纯净,痛苦为愉快,非我为真我。

  注:在奥修的解释中,不纯即为不自然、人为、强迫。纯净即天然、跟随内心。

  2.6. Egoism is the identification of the seer with the seen.

  自我(我执),即见者与所见的认同。

  注:将自己认同于头脑、身体、感知。

  2.7. attraction, and through it, attachment, is towards anything that brings pleasure.

  迷恋,通过迷恋而执著,是指向那些能够带来快感的事物。

  2.8. repulsion is from anything that causes pain.

  排斥是远离任何产生痛苦的事。

  2.9. flowing through life is the fear of death, the clinging to life, and it is dominant in all, even the learned.

  贯穿生命的,是对死亡的恐惧,对生命的执著统治所有人,即使饱学之士。

  2.10. the sources of the five afflictions can be abolished by resolving them backwards to their origin.

  以上五种烦恼的源头,可经由回溯至他们的起源以消除。

  2.11. the outward expressions of the five afflictions disappear through meditation.

  五种烦恼的外在表现会在冥想中消失。

  2.12. whether fulfilled in the present or the future, karmic experiences have their roots in the five afflictions.

  无论是过去还是将来了结的业,都在五种烦恼中有其根基。

  2.13. as long as the roots remain, karma is fulfilled in rebirth through class, span of life, and types of experiences.

  只要根基仍在,业便会跨越等级、生命与经验类型以寻求了结。

  2.14. virtue brings pleasure; vice brings pain.

  善行得快乐,恶行得痛苦。

  2.15. the discriminating person realizes that everything leads to misery because of change, anxiety, past experience, and the conflicts that arise between the three attributes

  and the five modifications of the mind.

  明辨之人发现一切皆苦,只因为有变化、焦虑、过去经历以及头脑三种性质与五种形式(见1.6)之间的冲突。

  注:三种性质three attributes,“性质”其梵文是Gunas,亦译为三德、三态、三种属性/品质。它们分别是Sattwa,纯粹、核心,稳定性。Rajas,活力,能量,活动性。Tamas,惰性,惯性。它们相

  生相斥,是事物的基本状态和属性。

  2.16. future misery is to be avoided.

  未发生的痛苦可以避免。

  2.17. the link between the seer and the seen that creates misery, is to be broken.

  见者与所见之间的连接导致了痛苦,它需要被打破。

  注:这个连接,就是认同

  2.18. the seen which is composed of the elements and the sense organs is of the nature of stability, action, and inertia, and is for the purpose of providing experience and thus

  liberation to the seer.

  由元素及感官组成的所见(之物)有三性质:稳定性、活动性、惯性,而它们是为见者提供经验,并从而获得解脱。

  注:即这个世界的存在,是为了让见者(人们)学习经验,得到自由。

  2.19. the three gunas — stability, action, and inertia — have four stages: the defined, the undefined, the indicated, and the unmanifest.

  三性质——稳定性、活动性、惯性——有四个阶段性:确定的、未定的、显现的、未显现的。

  注:四个阶段,后一个比前一个更加精微。如物质是确定的,意识是未定的,自我(self)是显现(而无法定义的),无我是未显现的。

  2.20. the seer, although pure consciousness, sees through the distortions of the mind.

  见者,即便已是纯粹的觉知,仍经过头脑的扭曲观察。

  注:即使是佛也要使用头脑和身体,但佛使用头脑,而人们是被头脑使用。

  2.21. the seen exists for the seer alone.

  所见只为见者而存在。

  注:一千个人眼里,有一千个哈姆雷特。

  2.22. although the seen is dead to him who has attained liberation, it is alive to others because it is common to all.

  对已达到自由的人来说,所见皆不实,然而在其它人眼里,一切都是真实(活着)的,因众人所见莫不如此。

  注:世界是一场公共的梦,醒者少而沉迷者众,因其众,故而更易沉迷。

  2.23. the seer and the seen come together so that the real nature of each may be realized.

  见者与所见相遇,以便认识其真实性质。

  注:为了认识领悟事物的真实性,见者去观察认知事物。

  2.24. the cause of this union is ignorance.

  这一结合的原因即无知。

  注:结合union,即认同于外部世界。

  2.25. the disassociation of the seer and the seen which is brought about by the dispersion of ignorance is the remedy that brings liberation.

  见者与所见的分离源自无知的消解,它是带来自由的良药。

  注:分离disassociation,即不认同于观察对象,即同时觉知对象与自己。不着像,不认同所见之表面

  2.26. the unwavering practice of discrimination between what is the real and what is the unreal brings about the dispersion of ignorance.

  坚持不懈地分辨真实与不实会使无知消解。

  2.27. the highest stage of enlightenment is reached in seven steps.

  最高阶的成道,可分七个步骤到达。

  2.28. by practising the different steps of yoga for the destruction of impurity, there arises spiritual illumination which develops into awareness of reality.

  通过练习瑜伽的不同阶段以除去不纯,灵性之光开始显现,并成为对实相的觉察。

  注:不纯,即对外物的认同,将非我认同为真我。

  2.29. the eight steps of yoga are: self-restraint, fixed observance, posture, breath regulation, abstraction, concentration, contemplation and trance.

  瑜伽八支(步骤)是:持戒(Yam),遵行(Niyam),调身(Asan),调息(Pranayam),制感(Pratyahar),凝神(专注,Dharana),禅定(无念专注,Dhyan),三摩地(Samadhi)。

  注:遵行niyam,亦有译为精进。制感Pratyahar,亦有译执持、摄心。禅定dhyan,亦有译为静虑、入定。三摩地samadhi,亦有译为三昧。

  2.30. self-restraint, the first step of yoga, is comprised of the following five vows: nonviolence, truthfulness, honesty, sexual continence, and nonpossessiveness.

  拭戒,瑜伽第一步骤,由以下五条誓言组成:非暴力,真实,忠实(不偷窃),节欲,和不占有。

  注:在奥修的解释中,真实,不仅是讲实话,而是活出真实,对自己的心真实。不偷窃,不是简单的指不偷东西,而是不认同“非我”的外物(认同非我相当于“偷”),不“认贼作父”。

  2.31. these five vows, which constitute the great vow, extend to all the seven stages of enlightenment regardless of class, place, time, or circumstance.

  以上五条,不限于任何等级、空间、时间和环境。

  2.32. purity, contentment, austerity, self-study, and surrender to god are the laws to be observed.

  身心纯净,满足,俭行,了解自己以及臣服于神,是需要遵行的法则。

  2.33. when the mind is disturbed by wrong thoughts, ponder on the opposites.

  当头脑被错误的(负面)思想扰乱,可沉思其反面。

  注:当愤怒升起,则冥想慈悲。并非压抑,而是将能量导入另一方向。

  2.34. it is necessary to ponder on the opposites because wrong thoughts, emotions, and actions, such as violence, result in ignorance and intense misery whether they be

  performed, caused, or approved through greed, anger, or delusion in mild, medium, or intense degrees.

  有必要沉思其反面,因为错误(负面)思想、情绪及行为,如暴力,会导致无知及痛苦——无论它们是主动行使、被引发、或由贪婪、愤怒或错觉所产生,无论其程度是轻微、中度还是强烈。

  注:思想与行为并无本质区别。如发展一个杀人的想法,即使未付诸行动,在更大的实相内,对方已受到影响。

  2.35. when the yogi is firmly established in nonviolence, there is an abandonment of enmity by those who are in his presence.

  当瑜伽行者坚定非暴力,来到他面前的人就会放下敌意。

  注:正如疯狂的大象来到佛面前,就会恢复平静。但这并非说不会有人试图伤害一个成道者,在“远离”他直接影响的地方,人们经由间接的谣言、误解等,仍会产生敌意。

  2.36. when the yogi is firmly established in truthfulness, he attains the fruit of action without acting.

  当瑜伽行者坚定其真实(跟随内心的真实),将得享无为之治。

  注:他跟随内心指引,做事而并非做者(因为他是无我的),一切自然发生。

  2.37. when the yogi is firmly established in honesty, inner riches present themselves.

  当瑜伽行者坚定忠实(不偷窃,不认同外物),内在的宝藏开始显现。

  2.38. when the yogi is firmly established in sexual continence, vigor is gained.

  当瑜伽行者坚定节欲,精力得以增长。

  2.39. when the yogi is firmly established in nonpossessiveness, there arises knowledge of the “how” and “wherefore” of existence.

  当瑜伽行者坚定不占有,关于存在之“怎样”与“为何”的知识便得显现。

  2.40. When purity is attained there arises in the yogi a disgust(disillusion) for his own body and a disinclination(disillusion) to come in physical contact with others.

  当达到纯净,瑜伽行者不执迷于自己的身体或与他人身体的接触。

  注:不执迷于身体,不是自恋、执著身体,也不是自虐、折磨、厌恶身体,而是在二者之间,知道自己并非身体。

  2.41. from mental purity there arises cheerfulness, power of concentration, control of the senses, and a fitness for self-realization.

  头脑的纯净会产生愉悦、专注力、感官的控制,以及自我认知/实现。

  注:纯净,即不认同身体。专注力,越认同身体则越难专注。

  2.42. contentment brings supreme happiness.

  满足带来至高的快乐。

  2.43. austerities destroy impurities, and with the ensuing perfection in the body and sense organs, physical and mental powers awaken.

  俭行去除不纯,随着身体和感官的完美,肉体和意识能力觉醒。

  注:比如能看到光环。

  2.44. union with the divine happens through self study.

  通过觉知自己而达到与神性合一。

  2.45. total illumination can be accomplished by surrendering to god.

  完全的光明(三摩地)则由臣服而到达。

  注:觉知自己则可见到内在的神,然后臣服(无我)自然发生。臣服并非经由努力,而是觉知的结果。

  2.46. posture should be steady and comfortable.

  (调身的)姿势要稳定而舒适。

  2.47. posture is mastered by relaxation of effort and meditation on the unlimited.

  调整姿势从而放松一切努力,并冥想无限。

  注:调整姿势做到最佳的放松状态,放弃努力的念头,让放松自然发生。

  2.48. when posture is mastered there is a cessation of the disturbances caused by dualities.

  当姿势完全调好,二元性的扰动就会停止。

  注:当身体舒适地静止,头脑也会随之平静。

  2.49. the next step after the perfection of posture is breath control, which is accomplished through holding the breath on inhalation and exhalation, or stopping the breath

  suddenly.

  调身之后是调息,即在吸入、呼出时屏息,或在(呼吸之间)突然屏息。

  注:此即三种调息法,屏息在内、在外、之间。呼吸是头脑意识状态的体现,呼吸停止时,头脑亦有片刻停止。

  2.50. the duration and frequency of the controlled breaths are conditioned by time and place, and become more prolonged and subtle.

  呼吸的长度和节律由时间及地点来控制,并会变得更长、更细。

  2.51. there is a fourth sphere of breath control, which is internal, and it goes beyond the other three.

  有第四种调息,它是内在自发的,并超出前三种。

  注:即佛陀的安那般那数息,不控制呼吸,而是观照自然止息的点。帕坦加利虽提到此法,但未做详述。奥修猜测帕坦加利的弟子更多身体导向,因此控制呼吸较有效;而佛陀的弟子更多头脑导向,故

  而观照有效。

  2.52. then comes the dispersion of the cover that hides the light.

  于是对(内在)光之遮蔽得以消散。

  2.53. and then the mind becomes fit for concentration.

  然后头脑才适于专注。

  2.54. the fifth constituent of yoga, pratyahar — returning to the source — is the restoration of the mind’s ability to control the senses by renouncing the distractions of

  outside objects.

  瑜伽的第五步,pratyahar(制感)——返回源头——是卸除外物干扰,从而恢复头脑(意志)控制感官的能力。

  注:外在干扰并非由意志、戒律、逃避去除,而是通过经历并深深了解而放下。不再心缘外物,便可返观自己。

  2.55. then comes the complete mastery over all the senses.

  然后就能完全主载感官。

  Part III

  3.1. dharana, concentration, is confining the mind to the object being meditated upon.

  凝神(dharana)即头脑专注于所冥想的事物上。

  注:聚焦头脑,排除对象以外的干扰。

  3.2. dhyan, contemplation, is the uninterrupted flow of the mind to the object.

  禅定(dhyan),是对冥想事物不间断的觉知之流。

  注:专注对象是次要的,觉知是主要的。

  3.3. samadhi is when the mind becomes one with the object.

  三摩地(samadhi)是当头脑与事物合而为一。

  注:二元性消失,没有见者与所见,纯粹的觉知,无我。

  3.4. the three taken together — dharma, dhyan, and samadhi — constitute samyama.

  以上三者——凝神,禅定和三摩地——共同组成了三夜摩(Samyama)。

  3.5. by mastering it, the light of higher consciousness.

  掌握了它(三夜摩),便得更高的觉知之光。

  3.6. samyama is to be employed in stages.

  三夜摩可逐步掌握。

  3.7. these three — dharana, dhyan, and samadhi — are internal compared to the five that precede them.

  此三者——凝神、禅定和三摩地——相较之前的五步(从持戒到制感)更为内在。

  3.8. but the three are external compared to seedless samadhi.

  但比起无种子的三摩地,则为外在。

  3.9. nirodh-parinam is the transformation of the mind in which the mind becomes permeated by the condition of nirodh, which intervenes momentarily between an impression that is

  disappearing and the impression that is taking its place.

  Nirodh-parinam是一种头脑的转化形式,其中头脑被nirodh——前念已去、后念未生的间隙——所穿透。

  注:Nirodh:灭、止、寂静。Parinamah:转化,转变。

  3.10. this flow becomes peaceful with repeated impressions.

  这(觉知)之流经由不断练习(而生成的潜在印迹/习惯)而平稳。

  3.11. samadhi parinam, the inner transformation, is the gradual settling of distractions and the simultaneous rising of one-pointedness.

  Samadhi-parinam,内在的转化,是杂念逐渐沉淀,同时达到专注一点(一心不乱)。

  3.12. Ekagrata parinam, one-pointed transformation, is the condition of the mind in which the object of the mind that is subsiding is replaced in the next moment by an exactly

  similar object.

  Ekagrata-parinam,专一转化,是头脑中升起的念头与消失的念头极其类似的状态。

  注:通常念头是变化不定的,毫不相关的念头此起彼伏,当头脑达到专一,则前念为善,后念亦善,类似于念念归正。

  3.13. By what has been said in the last four sutras, the property, character, and condition transformations in the elements and sense organs are also explained.

  由以上四句经文,(物质)元素和感官的性质、特征和条件的转化亦是如此。

  3.14. whether they be latent, active, or unmanifest, all properties inhere in the substratum.

  不管它们是潜在、活动或未显化的,所有性质都存在于根基当中

  注:潜在、活动、未显化亦对应于过去、现在、未来。

  3.15. the variation in transformation is caused by the variety in the underlying process.

  (表层)转化的发生,由底层过程的变化所导致。

  3.16 by performing samyama on the three kinds of transformation — nirodh, samadhi and ekagrata — knowledge of past and future.

  对这三种转化——Nirodh, samadhi和ekagrata——进行三夜摩(冥想),便得知过去未来。

  3.17. the sound and the purpose and idea behind it are together in the mind in a confused state. By performing samyama on the sound, separation happens and there arises

  comprehension of the meaning of sounds made by any living being.

  声音与其背后的意义在头脑中混为一谈。通过对声音作三夜摩(冥想),便可分清,从而领悟一切生命发出声音的意义。

  注:一个人内在宁静下来,达到心念专一,才能不经过头脑而倾听。比如听懂动物的语言。

  3.18. by observing past impressions, knowledge of previous births is obtained.

  观照过去的习惯/印迹,便会了解前世。

  3.19. Through samyama the image occupying another’s mind can be known.

  经由三夜摩(冥想),可得知他人脑海中的画面。

  注:他心通,或看到他人思想的图像。

  3.20. But perception through samyama does not bring knowledge of the mental factors that support the image in another’s mind for that is not the object of samyama.

  但是无法感知到思想画面背后的动机,因为那并非冥想的对象。

  注:比如可以得知对方正想着一个月亮,但无法得知其想月亮的动机。

  3.21. By performing samyama on the form of the body to suspend receptive power, the contact between the eye of an observer and the light from the body is broken, and the body

  becomes invisible.

  对身体外形作三夜摩(冥想)以中断接收的力量,眼睛与观察者之间的接触、及由身体发出的光线会被打断,身体得以隐形。

  This principle also explains the disappearance of sound.

  这一原则同样适用于声音的消失。

  3.22. By performing samyama on the two types of karma, active and dormant, or upon omens and portents, the exact time of death can be predicted.

  对当前和休眠的业,或对预兆与征兆作三夜摩(冥想),能预知死亡的准确时间。

  注:业有三种,Sanchita是全部的业。Prarabdha是现世业,这一生所遭遇,是前者的一部分。Kriyaman是今天的业,若未得了结,便落入Sanchita储存。后两者组成帕坦加利所说的“当前”的业。

  3.23. By performing samyama on friendliness, or any other attribute, great strength in that quality is obtained.

  对友善,或其它品质作三夜摩(冥想),会从那一品质中得到强大的力量。

  注:其它品质指慈悲、快乐、平和等等。当到达三摩地而不能分享慈悲和爱的品质,则只是自了汉。

  3.24. By performing samyama on the strength of an elephant, the strength of an elephant is obtained

  对大象的力量作三夜摩(冥想),会获得大象的力量。

  .

  3.25. by directing the light of the superphysical faculty, knowledge is gained of the subtle, the hidden, and the distant.

  通过超能之光,可获得精微、隐蔽和遥远处的知识。

  注:通过超绝感知(经文把这种神通比作光),可以知晓极细微的知识(比如原子,意识等),还可以遥感。

  3.26. By performing samyama on the sun, knowledge of the solar system is gained.

  对太阳作三夜摩(冥想),获得太阳系的知识。

  注:奥修说“太阳”是指身体内的sex center,海底轮。也有版本说“太阳”是指太阳丛轮。

  3.27. By performing samyama on the moon, knowledge concerning the arrangement of the stars is gained.

  对月亮作三夜摩(冥想),获得星辰排列的知识。

  注:奥修说月亮中心是脐下丹田的位置。

  3.28. By performing samyama on the polar star, knowledge of the movement of the stars is gained.

  对北极星作三夜摩(冥想),获得星辰运行的知识。

  注:奥修说身体的“北极星”就是觉知。

  3.29. By performing samyama on the navel center, knowledge of the organization of the body is gained.

  对肚脐中心(的脉轮)作三夜摩(冥想),获得身体组织的知识。

  3.30. By performing samyama on the throat, there comes a cessation of the feelings of hunger and thirst.

  对喉咙(的脉轮)作三夜摩(冥想),可以中止饥渴。

  3.31. By performing samyama on the nerve called kurma-nadhi, the yogi is able to be completely motionless.

  对胸腔中叫作kurma-nadhi的管道作三夜摩(冥想),身体会完全静止。

  注:观照呼吸,当呼吸几乎停止时,身体会随之停止。

  kurma-nadhi:两锁骨之间的窝窝里面半寸的地方,瑜伽行者可以进入龟息的状态,就是守这个地方。

  3.32. By performing samyama on the light under the crown of the head comes the ability to contact all perfected beings.

  对顶轮的光作三夜摩(冥想),可接触完美的存在。

  3.33. through pratibha, intuition, knowledge of everything.

  通过超觉,可得知一切。

  注:超觉高于直觉和理性,对事物瞬间的全知。

  3.34. performing samyama on the heart brings awareness of the nature of mind.

  对心脏作三夜摩(冥想),获知意识的本性。

  3.35. experience is the result of the inability to differentiate between purusha, pure consciousness, and sattva, pure intelligence, although they are absolutely distinct.

  Performing samyama on the self-interest brings knowledge of the purusha separated from the knowledge of others.

  经验是无法区分purusha(真知/真我)与sattva(纯粹的理智)的结果,虽然它们是完全不同的。对真正的自己作三夜摩(冥想),获得与他们所知不同的真知。

  注:二元性的经验属于身体和头脑。

  3.36. from this follows intuitional hearing, touching, seeing, tasting, and smelling.

  因之产生超觉的听力、触觉、视力、味觉和嗅觉。

  3.37. these are powers when the mind is turned outward, but obstacles in the way of samadhi.

  对转向外在的头脑,这些是强大的力量,但却是三摩地的障碍。

  3.38. loosening the cause of bondage and knowing the channels allows the mind to enter another’s body.

  解开束缚之因,知晓方法,意识就可进入他人身体。

  注:束缚之因即认同。

  3.39. by mastering the current udana, the yogi is able to levitate and pass without contact over water, mire, thorsn, etc.

  掌握了Udana,瑜伽行者(的肉体)能够飘浮移动,而不接触水面、沼泽和荆棘。

  注:有五种气息。Prana(神经力量)、Udana(五官的力量,自然上行)、Rpana(生殖系统的力量,排泄下行)、Samana(消化系统的力量,身体供热)、Vayana(内循环系统的力量,整合)。

  3.40. by mastering the current samana, the yogi is able to cause his gastric fire to blaze.

  掌握了解Samana,瑜伽行者可点燃胃部的火焰。

  3.41. By performing samyama on the relationship between the ether and the ear, superphysical hearing becomes available.

  对以太与耳朵的关系作三夜摩(冥想),产生超觉听力。

  注:以太的梵文是akash,环绕一切的空间。阿卡西记录akashic records即来源于此词。所有已发生、在发生、未发生之事都存于akash。

  3.42. By performing samyama on the relationship between the body and the ether and at the same time identifying himself with light things, like cotton down, the yogi is able to

  pass through space.

  对以太与身体关系作三夜摩(冥想),并意念身轻如棉花,瑜伽行者便可穿过空间。

  3.43. The power of contacting the state of consciousness which is outside the mental body and therefore inconceivable is called mahavideha.

  Through this power the covering of the light is destroyed.

  达到身体外觉知的能力,叫作mahavideha,超越身体的人。通过这个能力,去除一切无明。

  3.44. Performing samyama on their gross, constant, subtle, all-pervading, and functional state brings mastery over the panchabhutas — the five elements.

  对物质的粗重、本质、精微、遍布(关系)以及功能状态作三夜摩冥想,就能掌控元素(物质)。

  3.45. From this follows the attainment of anima, etc., perfection of the body, and the removal of the elements’ power to obstruct the body.

  随之达成缩身等(神通),及身体的完美,并去除阻障身体的元素力。

  3.46. Beauty, grace, strength, and adamantine hardness constitute the perfect body.

  完美的身体是美丽、优雅、有力及金刚不坏。

  3.47. Performing samyama on their power of cognition, real nature, egoism, all-pervasiveness, and functions brings mastery over the sense organs.

  对其认知、本性、自我、遍布(互连性)以及功能性作三夜摩冥想,便可掌控这些感官。

  3.48. From this follows instantaneous cognition without the use of the body, and complete mastery over pradhana, the material world.

  随之产生不通过身体的即刻认知,并完全掌握物质世界。

  注:即刻认知,有版本译为敏捷、闪电般的意识。

  3.49. Only after the awareness of the distinction between sattva and purusha does supremacy and knowledge arise over all states of existence.

  只有觉察Sattva(理性)和purusha(真知/真我)的区别,才会全知全能。

  3.50. By being nonattached to even these powers, the seed of bondage is destroyed.

  Then follows kaivalya, liberation.

  只有不执著于这些能力,束缚的种子才得毁去,然后有Kaivalya,自由(解脱)。

  3.51. There should be an avoidance of any attachment or pride to invitations from the superphysical entities in charge of various planes because this would bring the possibility

  of the revival of evil.

  对于不同层面超自然实体的邀请(诱惑),避免执著或骄傲,因为有可能使邪恶重现。

  3.52. Performing samyama on the present moment, the moment gone, and the moment to come brings knowledge born of the awareness of the ultimate reality.

  对现在、已去与将至的片刻作三夜摩(冥想),可得觉知终极实相。

  注:亦有译为“专注于刹那及其时间相续(性),可获得明辨的洞见”。

  3.53. From this comes the ability to distinguish between similar objects which cannot be identified by class, character, or place.

  由此便有能力分辨两个极似之物,即使他们在种类、特性、空间上完全一样。

  3.54 The highest knowledge born of the awareness of reality is transcendent, includes the cognition of all objects simultaneously, pertains to all objects and processes

  whatsoever — in the past, the present, and the future and transcends the world process.

  由觉知实相中所得到的是超绝的全知,涵盖对一切事物瞬间的同时认知,超越所有过去、现在和未来的事物与过程,超越世界。

  3.55 liberation is obtained when there is equality of purity between the purusha and sattva.

  当Sattva(理性)与purusha(真我)达到同等纯净,便获得自由(解脱)。

  注:即达到对二者的明辨,不认同头脑为真我觉知。

  Part IV

  4.1. the powers are revealed at birth, or acquired through drugs, repeating sacred words, austerities, or Samadhi.

  超自然力可于初生、药物、唱诵咒语、苦行及三摩地中显现。

  注:此五者依觉知度逐增而排列。

  4.2. the transformation from one class, species, or kind, into another, is by the overflow of natural tendencies of potentialities.

  一种等级、种类、性质到另一种的转化是由于(内在)自然潜能倾向的满溢、流动。

  4.3. the incidental cause does not stir the natural tendencies into activity; it merely removes the obstacles – like a farmer irrigating a field: he removes the obstacles, and

  then the water flows freely by itself.

  那些原因并不直接带来转变;只是移除障碍——像农夫除去石块,水流自然灌溉农田。

  4.4. artificially created minds proceed from egoism alone.

  人工(虚假)的意识(头脑)只来源于自我。

  4.5. though the activities of the many artificial minds vary, the one original mind controls them all.

  虽然人工意识千变万化,却由唯一的原初意识所控制。

  注:原初意识,即真我。

  4.6. only the original mind which is born of meditation is free from desires.

  只有三摩地中升起的原初意识才是无欲的。

  注:此意识不再受过去的习惯/印迹影响。

  4.7. the yogi’s karmas are neither pure nor impure, but all others are threefold: pure, impure and mixed.

  瑜伽行者的业非黑非白,其他人则属于以下三者:黑、白、混合。

  注:无欲无我之人的行为非善非恶。

  4.8. desires arise from these three-fold karmas when circumstances are favorable for their fulfillment.

  一但环境合适,欲望即从以上三种业中升起。

  注:由业(因)性质不同,各自产生相应的果报。

  4.9. because memories and impressions retain the same form, the relationship of cause and effect continues, even though separated by class, locality, and time.

  哪怕有等级、空间、时间的阻隔,由于记忆和习惯(印迹、习气)仍在,因果轮回就会持续。

  4.10. and there is no beginning to this process, as the desire to live is eternal.

  这一过程没有起点,只因生之欲望永恒。

  4.11. being bound together as cause-effect, the effects disappear with the disappearance of causes.

  作为原因-结果而结合在一起,只有当原因消失,结果才会消失。

  注:奥修的意思是任何习惯、现象,压制结果的产生,不如从原因上改变。亦有其它版本译为“当原因、结果、基础、(引发的)对象消失(因四者紧密结合),一种习惯(习气)才会消失。”

  4.12. past and future exist in the present, but they are not experienced in the present because they are on idfferent planes.

  过去未来都存在于现在,但它们位于不同层面,故而当下无法经验到它们。

  4.13. whether manifest or unmanifest, the past, the present and the future are of the nature of gunas: stability, action and inertia.

  无论显化与否,过去、现在、未来都具有三性质(gunas):稳定性、活动性和惯性。

  注:亦有将three gunas译为“三德/三态”。

  4.14. the essence of any object consists in the uniqueness of the proportions of the three gunas.

  万物的本质都包含了唯一比例的三性质。

  注:三性质亦可理解为阳性(正、质子)、中性(中子)、阴性(负、电子)

  4.15. the same object is seen in different ways by different minds.

  同一事物,不同头脑看到的就不一样。

  4.16. an object is not dependent on one mind.

  但事物并不依赖于某一个头脑。

  注:若事物依赖于观察它的头脑而存在,若没有人在观察,那这一事物就不存在了吗?

  4.17. an object is known or unknown depending on whether the mind is colored by it or not.

  事物是否可知,取决于头脑是否被其染色。

  注:染色,即有意识到事物。

  4.18. the modifications of the mind are always known by its lord, due to the constancy of the purusa, pure consciousness.

  头脑的转化永为其主宰所知,因真我(purusa)是恒常的,纯粹的觉知。

  4.19. the mind is not self-illuminating, because it is itself perceptible.

  头脑无法照亮(觉知)自己,因为它本身是可被觉知的。

  4.20. It is impossible for the mind to know itself and any other object at the same time.

  头脑无法认知事物的同时也认知自己。

  注:头脑无法觉知自己——同时作为知者与所知,因此当你觉知到头脑,你就不是头脑(而是一个觉知/观照)。

  4.21. If it were assumed that a second mind illuminates the first, cognitiion of cognition would also have to be assumed, and a confusion of memories.

  如果假设还有一个头脑(意识)去觉知前一个头脑,必然得假设存在一个对认知的认知,以此推递无穷,从而引起记忆的混乱。

  注:有人会怀疑,也许不存在一个觉知,只是头脑在觉知自己。故帕坦加利指出:若有头脑二觉知头脑一,必有头脑三觉知头脑二,如此没有尽头,真我永远找不到。所以,只有头脑无法觉知自己,是

  真我在觉知一切,问题才有解答。

  4.22. Knowledge of its own nature through self-cognition is obtained when consciousness assumes that form in which it does not pass from place to place.

  只有在假设觉知不再从一处移另一处时,关于自性的认知才会产生。

  注:光源照亮周围的同时,也照亮自己。当觉知不再认同外物,它就会反观自己。

  4.23. when the mind is colored by the knower and the known, it is allapprehending.

  当头脑被知者与所知染色,它便能得知一切(所能知晓的)。

  注:头脑同时反映知者(真我)与所知。

  4.24. though variegated by innumerable desires, the mind acts for another, for its acts in association.

  头脑虽被无穷欲望沾染,但它为另一个而工作,并合作。

  注:另一个,即真我,觉知。

  4.25. when one has seen this distinction, there is a cessation of desire for dwelling in the atma, the self.

  当一个人明辨这一区别,驻留于自己的欲望就会停止。

  注:明辨,即不认同任何非我。

  4.26. then the mind is inclined towards discrimination, and gravitates towards liberation.

  当头脑愈加明辨,你便被引向自由(解脱)。

  注:明辨移除障碍,然后自由就像磁石一样吸引着人们到达。所以无欲才得解脱。

  4.27. in breakes of discrimination, other pratyayas, concepts, arise through the force of previous impressions. These should be removed in the same way as other afflictions.

  在明辩的间隙,其它概念、过去习惯就会升起。这些可与其它烦恼一样去除。

  4.28. one who is able to maintain a constant state of de3sirelessness even towards the most exalted states of enlightenment, and is able to exercise the highest kind of

  discrimination, enters the state known as ’the cloud which showers virtue’.

  当一个人哪怕在开悟的极度兴奋之下,也能保持无欲,并修持至高明辨,便入一种叫作“美德之云”的状态。

  注:无欲的最后一步是抛弃成道的欲望。“美德之云”,虽然施予美德,却仍是云团,是障碍。

  4.29. then follows freedom from afflictions and karmas.

  然后才能解脱于烦恼和业。

  4.30. that which can be known through the mind is very little compared with the infinite knowledge obtained in enlightenment, when the veils, distortions, and impurities are

  removed.

  当移去遮蔽、扭曲和不纯,头脑所知与三摩地中获得的无限智能相比是极其微小的。

  注:此句亦有译为“即达到全知,很少有不知道的。”

  4.31. having fulfilled their object, the process of change in the three gunas comes to an end.

  达到了目的,三性质的变化过程便即终结。

  4.32. kramaha, the process, is the succession of changes that occur from the moment to moment which become apprehensible at the final end of the transformations of the three

  gunas.

  这一过程,作为刹那相续的离散序列,只有在三性质转化的最后终结才被了解。

  注:即只有至高明辨才能觉察看似连续的过程中,是由一个个分离的片刻续接而成。类似量子理论。

  4.33. kaivalya is the state of enlightenment that follows the remergence of the gunas, due to their becoming devoid of the object of the purusa.

  解脱是一种状态,伴随着三性质因失去真我对象而消融(进入隐态)。

  注:当失去对象,三性质的转化即告终结。好比二元性消失,则阴阳转化的过程亦不存在。

  4.34. in this state, the purusa is established in his real nature, which is pure consciousness.

  在此状态,真我驻于真实本性,即纯粹的觉知。

  Finish.

  完。

——End——

 


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